30 November 2019

Thank You, Lord

Thank you, Lord, for the blessings You have planned for us during the upcoming holy season of Advent.

Richard Doerflinger on Keeping One's Sanity during the Advent and Christmas Seasons

"Is it my imagination, or has the Christmas shopping season (or 'holiday shopping season') extended itself by another few weeks?

"What we used to call 'Black Friday' sales, beginning the day after Thanksgiving, seem to be creeping back toward early November.

"So we are heading toward an amorphous two-month 'holiday season' - not much consolation to those who will be working harder than ever during these months, either to sell us presents or to earn enough money to buy them (or both). Some holiday.

"And Thanksgiving may increasingly lose its meaning, merely marking the halfway point in the commercial frenzy. It's an embarrassing holiday for secularists anyway. Who or what can they thank? And ugh, Puritans are involved. . . .

"So I have some practical tips for keeping one's sanity during this Advent and Christmas."

In a recent commentary, Richard Doerflinger, a Public Policy Fellow at the University of Notre Dame Center for Ethics and Culture and an Adjunct Fellow in Bioethics and Public Policy at the National Catholic Bioethics Center, reflected on our observance of the holiday season and offered some suggestions designed to help us stay appropriately focused during this time. These suggestions include seeing Christmas Day as the beginning (not the end) of festivity and gift-giving, finding ways to keep the religious meaning of the season before our eyes, and remembering that Christmas "means anything at all because it marks the beginning of the central event in the history of the universe."

To access Mr. Doerflinger's complete post, please visit:

The Boston Pilot: Echoes: Richard Doerflinger: Happy holy days (29 NOV 19)

Reflection Starter from Fr. Frederick Faber

"There is hardly ever a complete silence in our soul. God is whispering to us well-nigh incessantly. Whenever the sounds of the world die out in the soul, or sink low, then we hear these whisperings of God. He is always whispering to us, only we do not always hear, because of the noise, hurry and distractions which life causes as it rushes on." - Father Frederick W. Faber

29 November 2019

Small Business Saturday

A number of communities throughout this region and the rest of the nation are urging residents to save some energy (and money) by turning out to support locally-based, small businesses on Saturday, 30 November – Small Business Saturday (the business day between Black Friday and Cyber Monday).

This promotion has been initiated for a number of reasons:
  • It supports the type of independent, unique businesses that make local communities vibrant and distinct places.
  • It keeps spending and tax revenue local, verses having them “leaking” out to neighboring jurisdictions.
  • Profits go to local owners instead of national headquarters located somewhere else.
  • It helps demonstrate that local government is supportive and invested in local business success.
Small Business Saturday, which was established by American Express in 2010 and cosponsored by the U.S. Small Business Administration since 2015, is an effort to help small businesses get more exposure during one of the biggest shopping weekends of the year. According to American Express, over 100 million people came out last year to shop at independently-owned small businesses during Small Business Saturday.

For more information about this observance, please visit:

Small Business Saturday

Facebook: Small Business Saturday

U.S. Small Business Administration: Small Business Saturday

On the Establishment of a Moon Rock Museum, Black Friday as the Busiest Day of the Year for Plumbers, and Other Matters

A number of articles/posts have recently been published on a variety of New England-related subjects worth considering.

To access some of these, please visit:

The Enterprise (Brockton, MA): After son's death, East Bridgewater mother turns pain into advocacy (19 OCT 19)

New Britain Herald: Maintenance man proved a godsend for residents of Tremont Street home during Wednesday's fire (21 NOV 19)

The News-Times (Danbury, CT):As older CT cemetery caretakers fade, who'll step up? (23 NOV 19)

The Boston Globe: Clash along bucolic Maine coast erupts over rockweed (25 NOV 19)

The Westerly Sun: Serving Those Who Served: Ashaway Elementary students honor veterans at annual family breakfast (18 NOV 19)

Boston Herald: Tea Party group places commemorative markers at gravesites (15 NOV 19)

The Morning Sentinel: Gems, minerals and world’s largest moon rocks get their own museum in Bethel (29 NOV 19)

Journal Inquirer (Manchester, CT): Vernon Police Explorer program turns 50 (19 NOV 19)

The Recorder (Greenfildl, MA):  Black Friday busiest day of year for plumbers (29 NOV 19)

Boston Herald: Closed churches become condos, Dollar Tree, hockey rinks (29 NOV 19)

The Patriot Ledger (Quincy, MA): A Good Age: Quincy woman pulling her weights at 103 (10 SEP 19)

The Enterprise (Brockton, MA): With firefighter roots, Brockton's Jake Ash Band takes on country scene (24 JAN 19)

Johann Sebastian Bach: Violin Concerto No. 1 in A-minor

It's time for some classical music. This is a presentation of Johann Sebastian Bach's "Violin Concerto No. 1 in A-minor" by the Baltic Sea Youth Philharmonic, (with Julia Fischer on violin), conducted by Kristjan Järvi:

Thank You, Lord

Thank you, Lord, for the blessing of those who reach out to and minister to migrants.

Welcoming the Stranger

This summer, an image went viral in Italy. It was a photograph of three Italian grandmothers holding migrant children from Africa on their laps. Reporting for the online religion website Aleteia, Dolors Massot wrote, "They are three Italian grandmothers named Nicolina, Vincenza, and Maria, and they surely never imagined they'd become famous on the social networks in their country. Yet, today they have, thanks to a simple act of love."

These three grandmothers live in Campoli del Monte Taburno, a town in southern Italy where there is a welcoming center for migrants. Soon after the photo was posted to social media, responses began pouring in from all over Italy. One person referenced the dangers migrants from Africa face on one of the deadliest migratory routes in the world, writing, "I see that the world is still able to show humanity: grandmothers who act like grandmothers for children at a welcoming center. Above all today, when 150 people probably lost their life at sea, it heals my heart."

"This is the Italy I love," someone else said. "This is my land!!! Solidarity, but above all, Love." And a grandson of one of the grandmothers responded, saying, "To think that 37 years ago, I was on that same lap, wrapped in that same smile, and now miles away and a few years older, I'm very happy to be able to share the same emotions with a child I don't know, but who deserves it all and more."

In a time when migration has become so politically polarizing, this is a beautiful story to remind us of the humanity at the heart of issues of immigration. It’s important to remember the way in which we are called to relate to people on an individual basis, and recognizing the dignity of each individual is a great starting point for addressing such issues. In a recent story for Aleteia, Alicia Ambrosia tells of how one woman is changing the lives of immigrants in Vancouver, Canada. Her name is Trixie Ling, and she is the founder of Flavours of Hope, an organization that enables immigrants to find work preparing food from their country of origin through pop up dinners and participation in a summer market.

An immigrant to Canada who was born in Taiwan, Ling understands how isolated women can feel when they come to a new country. "Cooking overcomes that," she said. "It's doing something together, and cooking and eating are universal experiences." Venezuelan refugee Maria Alejandra Reyes is a perfect example of the success of Ling's mission. Reyes became a cook for Flavours of Hope and it broadened her community, providing opportunities for her to practice her English and improve her confidence so that she could apply for additional employment.

As a cook for Flavours of Hope, Reyes specializes in hallacas and tequenos, traditional Venezuelan dishes. She says of the experience that it "feels like . . . family eating together." Talking about the community she has found there, she says, "I count on people and they count on me. That is very important."

The stories of both Ling and the now famous grandmothers of Italy send a powerful message about God's call to welcome the stranger in our midst. It's important for us all to look beyond the politics of immigration and to recognize the humanity of those whom God has sent to us and to our communities. By doing this, we join with other courageous people in setting an example and building a society based on mercy and love.

This essay is a recent "Light One Candle" column, written by Fr. Ed Dougherty, M.M, of The Christophers' Board of Directors; it is one of a series of weekly columns that deal with a variety of topics and current events.)

Background information:

The Christophers

Flavours of Hope

Reflection Starter from Hyman Rickover

"I believe it is the duty of each of us to act as if the fate of the world depended on our actions because in a society that is willing to accept mediocrity, the opportunities for failure are boundless." - Admiral Hyman G. Rickover

28 November 2019

Thanksgiving Reflections and News Items

A number of articles/posts have recently been published related to Thanksgiving and its celebration this year.

To access some of these, please visit:

National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception: A Thanksgiving Reflection on Faith and Gratitude (14 NOV 19)

Rhode Island Catholic: Editorial: Thanksgiving is the proper response to God's gifts (28 NOV 19)

Providence Journal: Holocaust survivors from Barrington among those who share stories of gratitude for Thanksgiving (28 NOV 19)

National Review: Coolidge on Giving Thanks (24 NOV 11)

The Taunton (MA) Daily Gazette: 'Tell everybody I said thank you': Wife of Taunton mall hero overwhelmed by community support (28 NOV 19)

Bangor (ME) Daily News: From pumpkin rolls to pumpkin pies, Bangor hospital strives to make Thanksgiving meal special (28 NOV 19)

Rutland (VT) Herald: Mission offers traditional free dinner (27 NOV 19)

Cape Cod Times: Macy's Thanksgiving parade has place in Nantucket lore (28 NOV 19)

USA Today: Native Americans dominated the first Thanksgiving feast in Plymouth (28 NOV 19)

The Old Farmer's Almanac: Thanksgiving 2019: Why Thanksgiving Day Is So Late

Mental Floss: Popular Thanksgiving Dishes By State (23 NOV 19)

Kim Robertson: "Thanksgiving Hymn"

As we continue our observance of Thanksgiving Day, I offer this version of Kim Robertson presenting an instrumental version of "Thanksgiving Hymn":

Thanksgiving Day

As we in the United States celebrate Thanksgiving Day, the Church offers these readings: Sirach 50:22-24 (“And now, bless the God of all, who has done wondrous things on earth”), 1 Corinthians 1:3-9, and Luke 17:11-19. The Responsorial Psalm offered is Psalm 145 (Psalm 145:2-11).

For one version of the Responsorial Psalm set to music, please visit:

YouTube: Psalm 145: I Will Praise Your Name (Haas setting)

The Gospel reading is as follows: 

As Jesus continued his journey to Jerusalem, he traveled through Samaria and Galilee. As he was entering a village, ten persons with leprosy met him. They stood at a distance from him and raised their voices, saying, "Jesus, Master! Have pity on us!" And when he saw them, he said, "Go show yourselves to the priests." 

As they were going they were cleansed. And one of them, realizing he had been healed, returned, glorifying God in a loud voice; and he fell at the feet of Jesus and thanked him. He was a Samaritan. Jesus said in reply, "Ten were cleansed, were they not? Where are the other nine? Has none but this foreigner returned to give thanks to God?" Then he said to him, "Stand up and go; your faith has saved you."

Reflections on this day and on these readings:

Community in Mission: True Thanksgiving Isn't Just Something We Do; It’s Something That Happens to Us (27 NOV 19)

Dominicana: Thanksgiving Pilgrims (28 NOV 19)

Catholic Online: Deacon Keith Fournier on Thanksgiving Day and the Need to Return to God (28 NOV 19)

Franciscan Media: Thanksgiving: A Feast of Gratitude (28 NOV 19)

The Deacon's Bench: How Lincoln gave thanks: his proclamation

Thank You, Lord

Thank you, Lord, for the blessing of each person You have placed in our lives.

Joseph Mcdaniel on Breadcrumbs at Thanksgiving

"Tonight, millions of Thanksgiving dinners will be shared at tables across the country.

"The usual staples of turkey, stuffing, cranberry dressing, and mashed potatoes will be served, along with the exchange of laughter, memories from good times past, and dreams for the future.

"But not all of our Thanksgiving dinners will be like those so idyllically portrayed on magazine covers. There may be the simmering of tension between family members who have decided to call a truce for one evening. There may be the empty chair of a loved one lost or estranged. Or the experiment with deep fried turkey may have left a dry taste in everyone’s mouth.

"When we come to table with each other, we bring ourselves as we are. Sure, we may feel required to wear the face of social decorum, but whatever is beneath will eventually reveal itself; if not at this dinner, then at the next: our joys and hopes, along with our griefs and anxieties. We place upon the table those dishes we have prepared well, with the sweet flavor of love and devotion, and also those we have prepared hastily or poorly, perhaps with a tinge of dryness or bitterness."

In a recent commentary, Joseph McDaniel, OSFS, reflected on importance of bringing "those pieces of our heart that connect us with all the people we have met and places we have been, those loves which may be fresh like a newly baked loaf or stale like those left on the shelf" and offering them together - giving thanks for what has been, and saying yes to what shall be, "in remembrance of the God who is with us, now and always."

To access Mr. McDaniel’s complete post, please visit:

De Sales Weekly: Breadcrumbs (28 NOV 19)

Reflection Starter from Calvin Coolidge

"We have been a most favored people.We ought to be a most grateful people.We have been a most blessed people.We ought to be a most thankful people." - President Calvin Coolidge, in his Thanksgiving Proclamation, 1923

27 November 2019

On the Reasons Why the Hippocratic Oath Prohibits Physician-assisted Suicide, the Meaning Behind Christian Symbols, and Other Matters

A number of articles/posts have recently been published on a variety of subjects worth considering.

To access some of these, please visit:

Public Discourse: Why the Hippocratic Oath Prohibits Physician-Assisted Suicide (20 NOV 19)

Connecticut Post: Emanuel AME Church shooting survivor recounts her journey to forgiveness in Bridgeport talk (15 NOV 19)

Bacon From Acorns: The Longing for Things Higher (20 NOV 19)

CoraEvans: What's the meaning behind these popular Christian symbols?

Magis Center: Close Encounters of the Divine Kind (16 AUG 19)

Time: The 100 Best Inventions of 2019

Vox: Teen suicide is on the rise. So I talked to teens who attempted suicide (30 OCT 19)

Christian Science Monitor: Jewish remnant, and model of coexistence, endures in North Africa (5 NOV 19)

Government Technology: From Twitter with Love: GIS Challenge Pushes Creative Mapping (11 NOV 19)

Public Discourse: An Age of Adversarial Journalism: To Reach the Truth, You Need to Hear Both Sides (5 MAY 19)

Concord (NH) Monitor: Visiting Tibetan monks create vibrant sand art before spreading it in Contoocook River (11 NOV 19)

The Patriot Ledger (Quincy, MA): With gratitude, a view of Veterans Day from Manila (6 NOV 19)

Birthday Blessings, Evelyn!!!

Happy Birthday greetings to granddaughter Evelyn! May this day and the upcoming year be filled with an outpouring of the Lord's choicest blessings!

Fr. Michael Rennier on Mental and Spiritual Benefits of Taking a Walk

"The philosopher Immanuel Kant had a famously intense attachment to his daily walk. Wearing a threadbare coat that he refused to replace, he left his house at the exact same time each day and marched up and down the neighborhood street exactly eight times, about four miles in total. This was his time to decompress from the strain of his writing and a way to improve his circulation. So dedicated was Kant to his walk that his neighbors were said to set their watches by it. . . .

"There's something about physical motion and a very natural, human pace that encourages contemplation. The body is busy but measured, leaving the mind free to roam. Whatever ails you, there's a good chance a walk can fix it.

"We can all find plenty of information about the health benefits of walking, but what might be surprising are its many mental and spiritual benefits. . . ."

In a recent commentary, Father Michael Rennier reflected on some of these mental and spiritual benefits of walking (including helping concentrate while praying, lowering stress, and combating depression).

To access Fr. Rennier's complete post, please visit:

Aleteia: Fr. Michael Rennier: 7 Surprising benefits of taking a walk (5 MAY 19)

Wendy Matthews, John Schumann, and Brian Cadd: "Waltzing Matilda"

Various music traditions have developed over the years in different culture groups. One example is the tradition of various types of music in Australia.

In this example, Wendy Matthews, John Schumann, and Brian Cadd present "Waltzing Matilda":

Thank You, Lord

Thank you, Lord, for the blessing of the holy sacrifice of the Mass.

Matthew Becklo on the Journey Home of Three Atheists

"Their conversion stories show that, as G.K. Chesterton observed, 'The Church is a house with a hundred gates, and no two men enter at exactly the same angle.'

"Marcus Grodi, the host of EWTN's The Journey Home, has heard a lot of interesting conversion stories over the years, many from former Protestants like himself. But the show recently featured three very interesting conversations with women who journeyed into the Catholic faith - not from a non-Catholic denomination, or a non-Christian religion, but from unbelief in God. "

In a recent commentary, writer Matthew Becklo reflected on the journey of these three women into the Church..

To access his complete post, please visit:

Aleteia: Matthew Becklo: Catholicism: These three women - all former atheists - found their way into the Catholic Church (12 NOV 19)

Reflection Starter from St. Leonard of Port Maurice

"I believe that were it not for the Holy Mass, as of this moment the world would be in the abyss." - Saint Leonard of Port Maurice, whose memory the Church celebrated yesterday (26 October)

26 November 2019

On "Fans First" and the Transformation of Basbell in Savannah, GA

"Baseball is a game of tradition, and Grayson Stadium is as traditional as they come. The Savannah venue was built in 1926, back when game-day radio broadcasts were a new thing. The Boston Red Sox held spring training here, leading Hank Aaron, Babe Ruth, and Jackie Robinson to round its bases. For three decades, a local high school also took Grayson's field for its annual Thanksgiving Day game against a military academy. And between 1984 and 2015, it was home to a minor league team called the Sand Gnats. This was all baseball in its classic form - orderly and staid, romanticized by purists.

"Now? Things are a little different.

"It’s the bottom of the second inning at Grayson Stadium on a muggy midsummer night this past August, and baseball is briefly on pause. The local team is now called the Savannah Bananas, and its four pitchers are lined up along the first-base line in their bright yellow uniforms, thrusting their hips back and forth to 'That's What I Like,' by Bruno Mars. Alex Degen, a 19-year-old pitcher from the University of Kentucky, is really getting into it. I got a condo in Manhattan. Degen thrusts left. Baby girl, what's hatnin'? He thrusts right. Later, in the fourth inning, he'll hand out roses to little girls in the stands. . . ."

A recent Entrepreneur article reported on this transformation of baseball in Savannah, GA, and on the development of owner Jesse Cole's "fans first" philosophy.

To access the complete Entrepreneur article, please visit:

Entrepreneur: How The Country's Goofiest Baseball Team Made Millions (December 2019)

National Farm-City Week

This week, the week of 20-27 November, is National Farm-City Week. It is a time designed to remind urban, suburban, and rural residents of their interdependence and of those working in agriculture to supply "markets and families with fresh, healthy food."

Background information:

American Farm Bureau Federation

Farm Credit Knowledge Center: Celebrating National Farm City Week

Connecticut Department of Agriculture

UCONN Extension: Farm to Community

Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry

Massachusetts Department of Agricultural Resources

New Hampshire Department of Agriculture, Markets & Food

Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management: Division of Agriculture

Farm Fresh Rhode Island

Vermont Agency of Agriculture, Food, and Markets

Alabama: "Angels Among Us"

As we continue to live this week, I offer this version of Alabama presenting "Angels Among Us":

Thank You, Lord

Thank you, Lord, for the grace of perseverance.

Br. Anthony VanBerkum, O.P., on Preparing for the End Times

"As we come to the end of the liturgical year, the Church draws our attention to the end of time. The readings are full of apocalyptic imagery and dire warnings of the coming judgment. Furthermore, we devote the month of November to praying for the dead, reminding us that the end of our own time might be coming even before the stars begin falling out of the sky.

"But Jesus doesn't only have warnings for us; he also has advice. It might not be the advice we expect, though. He doesn't have some secret plan for where to hide when the four horsemen show up, or a one-shot recipe for surviving simultaneous earthquake, famine, and plague. Instead, he advises us, 'by your perseverance you will secure your lives' (Lk 21:19)."

In a recent commentary, Brother Anthony VanBerkum, O.P., reflected on the importance of following the example of Jesus as we persevere, with His grace, through the crosses of life.

To access Br. Anthony's complete post, please visit:

Dominicana: Prepping for the Apocalypse (16 NOV 19)

Reflection Starter from Dietrich Bonhoeffer

"Time lost is time in which we have failed to live a human life, gain experience, learn, create, enjoy, and suffer; it is time that has been filled up, but left empty." - Rev. Dietrich Bonhoeffer

25 November 2019

Ed McCurdy: "Billy Boy"

Music of various types has been interwoven into the history of the United States (going back to the original thirteen colonies). One of these songs is the folk song "Billy Boy," presented here by the Ed McCurdy:

Thank You, Lord

Thank you, Lord, for the words that have encouraged us and for the persons who offered these words.

Bishop Tobin on the Power of Our Words

"Two recent experiences illustrate the power of words.

"The first. While walking through the church after a Funeral Mass a lady stopped me to ask: 'Bishop, are you feeling okay?' 'Yep, I'm fine,' I said. 'Why do you ask?' 'Because you look awful,' she explained. (Not her exact words but we can't publish what she said.)

"The second. While visiting Rome recently, a man whom I didn't know approached me and said, 'Bishop Tobin, it's great to meet you. I'm one of your biggest fans. I'm a college professor and I tell my students all the time, "If you want an example of how to live as a Catholic today, look at Bishop Tobin from Providence."'

"You can imagine the different feelings I had after each encounter. After the first, I actually started to feel a bit ill. And after the second, I walked away with a spring in my step, my spirits uplifted."

In a recent commentary, Bishop Thomas J. Tobin, of the Diocese of Providence (RI), reflected on the power of our words to build up others or to tear them down.

To access Bishop Tobin's complete essay, please visit: 

The Imitation of Christ: Words Can Help or Hurt (21 NOV 19) 

Reflection Starter from Ernest Hemingway

"Today is only one day in all the days that will ever be. But what will happen in all the days that will ever come can depend on what you do today." - Ernest Hemingway

24 November 2019

"To Jesus Christ Our Sovereign King"

As our Sunday celebration continues, I offer this version of the Saint Mary Choir and Orchestra (Littleton, CO) presenting "To Jesus Christ Our Sovereign King":

The Solemnity of Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe

Today the Church celebrates the Solemnity of Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe. The assigned readings are 2 Samuel 5:1-3, Colossians 1:12-20, and Luke 23:35-43. The Responsorial Psalm is from Psalm 122 (Psalm 122:1-5).

For one version of the Responsorial Psalm set to music, please visit:

YouTube: Responsorial Psalm - Psalm 122

The Gospel reading is as follows:

The rulers sneered at Jesus and said, "He saved others, let him save himself if he is the chosen one, the Christ of God." Even the soldiers jeered at him. As they approached to offer him wine they called out, "If you are King of the Jews, save yourself." Above him there was an inscription that read, "This is the King of the Jews."

Now one of the criminals hanging there reviled Jesus, saying, "Are you not the Christ? Save yourself and us."

The other, however, rebuking him, said in reply, "Have you no fear of God, for you are subject to the same condemnation? And indeed, we have been condemned justly, for the sentence we received corresponds to our crimes, but this man has done nothing criminal." Then he said, "Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom."

He replied to him, "Amen, I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise."

Reflections on these readings:

Oblates of St. Francis de Sales: Sunday Reflections: Christ the King (November 24, 2019)

Oblates of St. Francis de Sales: Sundays Salesian: Christ the King (November 24, 2019)

Community in Mission: King of Thieves and King of the Universe - A Homily for the Solemnity of Christ the King (23 NOV 19)

Crossroads Initiative: Christ the King - Second Coming in Glory

Rhode Island Catholic: The Quiet Corner: A true son in the Son (20 NOV 19)

The Sacred Page: The End is Here! Feast of Christ the King (22 NOV 19)

The Sacred Page: Jesus Christ, King of the Universe (The Mass Readings Explained) (18 NOV 19)

Rhode Island Catholic: Sunday Scripture: A Final Prayer (20 NOV 19)

St. Paul Center: Kingdom of the Son: Scott Hahn Reflects on the Solemnity of Christ the King

Word on Fire: March in the Army of the True King (Solemnities * Christ the King)

Spirituality of the Readings: Spiritual Revolutions (Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe C)

In Exile: Privileged Communication Within the Communion of Saints (Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe C)

Glancing Thoughts: Christ the King (Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe C)

The Perspective of Justice: An Upside-Down Kingdom (Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe C)

Let the Scriptures Speak: King of Everything (Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe C)

The Word Engaged: The Counter-Cultural Sovereign (Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe C)

Historical Cultural Context: The Second Adam (Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe C)

Thoughts from the Early Church: Commentary by Bernard of Clairvaux (Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe C)